Understanding Cancer

Understanding-CancerThere are many forms of cancer, and there are many things you can do to better your treatment. At Hope Cancer Care of Nevada, we work with you and your caregiver every step of the way. We are here to help educate, empower and calm you as you focus on your complete mental, physical and spiritual recovery.

You probably have questions—a list of them even. While our trained team and top-ranked oncologist are here to answer them all, we would like to provide you with an overview that may begin answering a few. But remember, you and your caregiver are welcome to start a dialogue with a Hope medical professional at any time.

What is Cancer?
Cancer is an uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. It is important to remember that it is not one disease. There are multiple factors involved in causing cancer, such as genetics, lifestyle, and exposure to toxins.

PREVENTION AND SCREENING
Prevention and screening are the two most important factors responsible for decreasing cancer related deaths. Prevention includes adopting a healthy lifestyle such as being tobacco free, consuming moderate alcohol, reducing prolonged skin exposure to direct sunlight, maintaining regular exercise, eating a balanced meal, and avoiding over-consumption of red meat. Screening includes periodic testing according to established guidelines, such as mammogram, Pap smear, colonoscopy etc.
Screening Guidelines

DIAGNOSIS
A number of blood tests and scans (such as CT, MRI, PET etc) can help aid in the diagnosis of cancer. However, in most cases a biopsy, which consists of removing a “small piece of the cancer tissue”, is required to characterize the exact type of cancer and the specific treatment for it.

TREATMENT
There are two types of treatments: Local and Systemic. Local treatments such as surgery and radiation deal with a specific part of the body. Systemic treatments affect the entire body, and consist of chemotherapy and biologics (targeted drugs that find and kill the cancer cells only). A medical oncologist can coordinate all aspects of your cancer treatment and is an expert in administering chemotherapy and biologics.

CHEMOTHERAPY
Chemotherapy is the general term for treatments that use chemical agents to kill cancer cells. It is mostly given as a drip, but is sometimes also available in the form of a pill. Although cancer cells grow rapidly however once their DNA is damaged the ability to repair that damage is slower than the normal cells in the body. Chemotherapy takes advantage of this difference. Consequently between each dose healthy cells get a chance to repair themselves while cancer cells continue to die. Specific chemotherapies are designed to target different cancers. Chemotherapy is given to shrink and destroy visible tumors. It also eradicates “seeds” or micro metastasis. Micro metastasis is the spread of minuscule malignant cells from the cancers primary location, and are not visible on conventional scanning. Eradication of “seeds” is also called “adjuvant” treatment, and is the basis for offering chemotherapy after the removal of all visible cancer or tumors at the time of surgery.

BIOLOGICS
Biologics are sometimes called “targeted” or “smart” drugs that find specific cancer cells while sparing normal tissue. These can target and destroy the tumor’s blood supply, in effect killing the cancer cell. These drugs, like chemotherapy, are also available as an IV or pill form. They can be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy to enhance the effect of treatment.

HELPFUL LINKS
Cancer Types
Treatments
Diet and Nutrition
Coping
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Find local programs and support services or call 1800-ACS-2345

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NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH trial to test targeted drugs in childhood cancers

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The nationwide precision medicine trial will enroll children and adolescents with advanced cancers that haven’t responded to standard therapy to explore treatments targeted at specific genetic mutations. …read more Source:: Cancer


TCGA study of liver cancer reveals potential targets for therapy

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Only two drugs are FDA-approved for liver cancer. This study of hepatocellular carcinoma found genetic alterations in tumors—including mutations in tumor-suppressing genes and high expression of immune checkpoint genes—that could be targets for drugs that already exist. …read more Source:: … Read More


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By David Sampson An analysis appearing in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute finds strong evidence that adding ventilation holes to cigarette filters has contributed to a rise in a type of lung cancer called adenocarcinoma among smokers. The … Read More


Study estimates number of U.S. women living with metastatic breast cancer

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Panel Re-Opens the Door for PSA Screening in Men 55-69

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Annual Report to the Nation: Cancer death rates continue to decline

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The ‘Bad Luck’ Cancer Analysis, Part II

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By David Sampson A new study revisits an analysis made by the same lab in 2015 about the role of random mutations on cancer. The analysis uses computer modeling to estimate how many cancers are the result of replication errors. … Read More


ACS Study: Finds Colorectal Cancer Rates Have Risen Dramatically in Gen X and Millennials

02/28/17

By David Sampson A groundbreaking study by American Cancer Society epidemiologist Rebecca Siegel, MPH finds that people born in the United States in 1990 have double the risk of colon cancer and quadruple the risk of rectal cancer compared to … Read More